# Roman Numeral Converter

### Roman Numeral Symbols

Symbol | Value |
---|---|

I | 1 |

V | 5 |

X | 10 |

L | 50 |

C | 100 |

D | 500 |

M | 1,000 |

### How Roman Numbers Work

Roman Numerals read from left to right. Typically the largest number comes first, with smaller numbers following.

The following sequence reads 1 to 10 using addititive notation.

**I, II, III, IIII, V, VI, VII, VIII, VIIII, X**

While additive notation is used in some cases, Roman Numerals are commonly expressed using subtractive notation, where a person expresses 4 as 1 less than 5 [IV] instead of adding 1 four times [IIII]. The same expression is used for 9 as being 1 less than 10.

**I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X**

The pattern for expressing numbers by the power of 10 is the same.

**X, XX, XXX, XL, L, LX, LXX, LXXX, XC, C**

The pattern for expressing numbers by the power of 100 is also the same.

**C, CC, CCC, CD, D, DC, DCC, DCCC, CM, M**.

When a smaller number appears before a larger number it indicates subtractive notation applying to the symbol to the right.

874 = 800 + 70 + 4 = DCCC + LXX + IV = **DCCCLXXIV**.

If the number has a zero in it, that number is skipped.

409 = 400 + 9 = CD + IX = **CD****IX**.

### Writing Larger Numbers

- Some Romans would use a vinculum above a Roman number to indicate the number is multiplied by 1,000.
- Large numbers of 100,000 or more are expressed with a frame around them that is open at the bottom. This frame would indicate the portion of the number inside the frame be multiplied by 100,000.

### Additional Guides